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What Was The Non-Cooperation Movement – Significance, Impact, Causes And Suspension

What Was The Non-Cooperation Movement
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Mahatma Gandhi was the one who initiated the movement in August 1920. Because of him, the political campaign was called the Mahatma Gandhi Non-cooperation movement. But, what Was The Non-Cooperation Movement? What was the impact of the non-cooperation movement? And why was the non-cooperation movement suspended? During the struggle for freedom, various revolutionaries launched several movements to achieve our country’s independence. One among them was the Non-cooperation movement. Mahatma Gandhi, through his speeches, motivated people to oppose the British government in a non-violent form of protest. Amongst the ongoing non-violent protest, several incidents occurred, especially the Chauri Chaura incident of 1922, which involved violence and was a big reason why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the non-cooperation movement. 

All You Need To Know About Non-Cooperation Movement

Non-Cooperation Movement

The moment even slowed down in some areas due to conflict of interests among the famous freedom fighters. Finally, that was the answer to, why was the non-cooperation movement suspended. Let’s discuss what was the non-cooperation movement and how the impact of the non-cooperation movement helped the freedom fighters take a step toward independence in detail.

What Was The Non-Cooperation Movement? 

The Mahatma Gandhi non-cooperation movement was one of the several independence movements launched by freedom fighters to gain independence. The non-cooperation movement was initially launched in a manifesto by Mahatma Gandhi in March 1920. In his manifesto, he promoted to the Indian people the adoption of Swadeshi habits and eradication of the untouchability concept that divided people, which was also what was the non-cooperation movement’s main aim.

What Was The Non-Cooperation Movement

 Mahatma Gandhi non-Cooperation movement included the following features:

  • It was a form of non-violent protest against the British Government, with the primary objective to create turbulence in the British government ordinance.
  • Students and working men had to boycott British schools and colleges and resign from the higher British post, supporting the movement.
  • People were motivated to use Swadeshi products made by Indians and asked not to participate in any gatherings organised by the British government.
  • The Indian soldiers serving in British Army had to resign as others were not to join any kind of British service.
  • Mahatma Gandhi non-cooperation movement also demanded self-governance for Indians, in other words, the establishment of Swarajya of INC (Indian National Congress).
  • The achievement of complete swaraj was what the non-cooperation movement was all about.

Reasons Why Mahatma Gandhi Non-Cooperation Movement Started

There were not one but many reasons which led to the initiation of the non-cooperation movement. The reasons why this movement started are listed below:

1. Unfair treatment by the British after World War 1

Quite a several Indian soldiers participated in the First World War in return for rewards, in the form of the right to self-government. But instead, they were heavily betrayed by acts like the Rowlatt Act and the Government of India Act 1919. 

2. Economic tension in the country during World War 1 –

The extensive usage of bulk resources from the Indian subcontinent completely disturbed the Indian economy. Prices rose at very high rates making it hard for the common man to earn his daily bread. The agricultural sector was heavily affected. It only increased the anger of the public against the British government.

3. Jallianwala Bagh massacre

The most brutal act by the British government was the massacre in Jallianwala Bagh which made quite an impact on people. It completely broke the mere trust of people in the British and ignited a sense of revolt. Resulting in the non-cooperation movement.

Impact Of The Non-Cooperation Movement

Mahatma Gandhi non-cooperation movement mainly focused on the unification of the people of India as one against the British for their independence. This campaign created its worth in terms of being an immense mass movement. 

 impact of the non-cooperation movement

The impact of the non-cooperation movement was not just igniting the flame of desire for independence in people’s hearts but also bringing everyone together, making them forget all their differences. It brought forth the most famous Hindu-Muslim unity after merging the Khilafat and the non-cooperation movement. When Gandhiji asked to use only Swadeshi goods, it increased the Swadeshi manufacturing rates while the British factories suffered quite a loss. 

Reasons On Why Was The Non-Cooperation Movement Suspended

The movement faced severe suppression after leaders were arrested and imprisoned except Mahatma Gandhi. The other reasons why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the non-cooperation movement are mentioned below:

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Why Gandhiji Decided To Withdraw The Non-Cooperation Movement?

1. No support from many leaders

Famous leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah did not support the movement, walking out of it right away, which were among the reasons why was the non-cooperation movement suspended. Public meetings were prohibited by the British. 

2. The 1922 Chauri Chaura incident

There was even the Chauri Chaura incident in 1922, which created violent turmoil among the public. A group of 3000 people marched towards the local police station in Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh. They were being fired upon openly by the police resulting in a violent mob attack. This was another reason why was the non-cooperation movement suspended. 

3. Violent mob attack

The group of people set the police station on fire, to which several police officers died. The non-cooperation movement entirely shattered after this violent mob attack. This violent turmoil of Chauri Chaura was why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the non-cooperation movement. He official called off the campaign on the 12th of February, 1922. 

Non-Cooperation Movement – Significance

The non-cooperation was not successful in achieving complete independence, but it did impact the mindset of people by growing a desire for freedom. It brought people together and combinedly became a mass movement where people from all races and religions participated equally. 

Especially the Hindu-Muslim unity. The upper and lower classes worked together for one cause. The movement increased political participation to make people more aware of their rights and powers. 


The non-cooperation movement was one of the most important historical events in the light of Indian independence. It will not be wrong to term it as the first mass movement involving every Indian with only one thought in mind, Swaraj. Although there wasn’t much impact of the non-cooperation movement as per the manifesto of Mahatma Gandhi, it achieved the right mindset at the moment. 

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